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Hatshepsut Case Study



Browse Hatshepsut Case Study. London: Cambridge University Press. Thothmes and Hatshepsut had two Chilean Cazuela Research Paper, Neferura and Hatshepsut Case Study. This flask was a Chinese work of art that dated from to Hatshepsut Case Study Commons Wikiquote.

Hatshepsut: la Regina che divenne Faraone

When the US became a more industrialized nation, women worked in factories and therefore were given more financial responsibility. This responsibility was given to them though their rights remained limited. With a. In what situation would it have been acceptable to name a woman as heir to the throne? In Egypt there was maybe three other women served as pharaoh and King Hatshepsut was one of them. This happens when there is no acceptable male descendant available.

Upon the death of king Thutmose II the title is usually passed down to the next male relative in line, like a prince or next male kin. Cleopatra decided to take advantage of her age difference and rule the kingdom primarily by herself. She accomplished this by kicking her brother out of any authority position he had in the kingdom. After this she was exiled from Egypt to Syria, but she wasn 't giving the throne up very easily.

Cleopatra set up an army by the border of Egypt and gained her throne back. They had short, unmemorable reigns that only drove England farther down. Queen Elizabeth was the first to really change England for the better. For starters, Elizabeth did not marry. Scarlett Letter In the Scarlett Letter a book written by Nathaniel Hawthorne the main focus is about an adulteress, who has to wear a red letter A a. So that being said the main character is Hester Prynne. Although she did have to wear the scarlett letter, that is not at all who she was; it didn 't define her. Hester Prynne cheated on her husband when he was said to be lost at sea. They knew she did because her husband had been gone for two years when she had become pregnant. She had kept herself isolated for the outside, she really loved him, and relied on him to be there for her.

Queen Victoria was the queen of the United Kingdom in Zahi Hawass and brought to Cairo's Egyptian Museum for testing. This mummy was missing a tooth, and the space in the jaw perfectly matched Hatshepsut's existing molar, found in the DB "canopic box". While the mummy and the tooth could be DNA tested to see if belonged to the same person and confirm the mummy's identity, Dr. Zahi Hawass, the Cairo Museum and some Egyptologists have refused to do it as it would require destroying the tooth to retrieve the DNA. Other members of the queen's family are thought to have suffered from inflammatory skin diseases that tend to be genetic.

Assuming that the mummy is that of Hatshepsut, it is likely that she inadvertently poisoned herself while trying to soothe her itchy, irritated skin. Toward the end of the reign of Thutmose III and into the reign of his son, an attempt was made to remove Hatshepsut from certain historical and pharaonic records — a damnatio memoriae. This elimination was carried out in the most literal way possible. Her cartouches and images were chiseled off some stone walls, leaving very obvious Hatshepsut-shaped gaps in the artwork. At the Deir el-Bahari temple, Hatshepsut's numerous statues were torn down and in many cases, smashed or disfigured before being buried in a pit. At Karnak, there even was an attempt to wall up her obelisks. While it is clear that much of this rewriting of Hatshepsut's history occurred only during the close of Thutmose III's reign, it is not clear why it happened, other than the typical pattern of self-promotion that existed among the pharaohs and their administrators, or perhaps saving money by not building new monuments for the burial of Thutmose III and instead, using the grand structures built by Hatshepsut.

Amenhotep II , the son of Thutmose III, who became a co-regent toward the end of his father's reign, is suspected by some as being the defacer during the end of the reign of a very old pharaoh. He would have had a motive because his position in the royal lineage was not so strong as to assure his elevation to pharaoh. He is documented, further, as having usurped many of Hatshepsut's accomplishments during his own reign. His reign is marked with attempts to break the royal lineage as well, not recording the names of his queens and eliminating the powerful titles and official roles of royal women, such as God's Wife of Amun. For many years, presuming that it was Thutmose III acting out of resentment once he became pharaoh, early modern Egyptologists presumed that the erasures were similar to the Roman damnatio memoriae.

This appeared to make sense when thinking that Thutmose might have been an unwilling co-regent for years. This assessment of the situation probably is too simplistic, however. It is highly unlikely that the determined and focused Thutmose—not only Egypt's most successful general, but an acclaimed athlete, author, historian, botanist, and architect—would have brooded for two decades of his own reign before attempting to avenge himself on his stepmother and aunt. According to renowned Egyptologist Donald Redford :. Here and there, in the dark recesses of a shrine or tomb where no plebeian eye could see, the queen's cartouche and figure were left intact The erasures were sporadic and haphazard, with only the more visible and accessible images of Hatshepsut being removed; had it been more complete, we would not now have so many images of Hatshepsut.

Thutmose III may have died before these changes were finished and it may be that he never intended a total obliteration of her memory. In fact, we have no evidence to support the assumption that Thutmose hated or resented Hatshepsut during her lifetime. Had that been true, as head of the army, in a position given to him by Hatshepsut who was clearly not worried about her co-regent's loyalty , he surely could have led a successful coup, but he made no attempt to challenge her authority during her reign, and her accomplishments and images remained featured on all of the public buildings she built for twenty years after her death.

Joyce Tyldesley hypothesized that it is possible that Thutmose III, lacking any sinister motivation, may have decided toward the end of his life to relegate Hatshepsut to her expected place as the regent—which was the traditional role of powerful women in Egypt's court as the example of Queen Ahhotep attests—rather than pharaoh. Tyldesley fashions her concept as, that by eliminating the more obvious traces of Hatshepsut's monuments as pharaoh and reducing her status to that of his co-regent, Thutmose III could claim that the royal succession ran directly from Thutmose II to Thutmose III without any interference from his aunt.

The deliberate erasures or mutilations of the numerous public celebrations of her accomplishments, but not the rarely seen ones, would be all that was necessary to obscure Hatshepsut's accomplishments. Moreover, by the latter half of Thutmose III's reign, the more prominent high officials who had served Hatshepsut would have died, thereby eliminating the powerful religious and bureaucratic resistance to a change in direction in a highly stratified culture.

Hatshepsut's highest official and closest supporter, Senenmut, seems either to have retired abruptly or died around Years 16 and 20 of Hatshepsut's reign, and was never interred in either of his carefully prepared tombs. Presuming that it was Thutmose III rather than his co-regent son , Tyldesley also put forth a hypothesis about Thutmose suggesting that his erasures and defacement of Hatshepsut's monuments could have been a cold, but rational attempt on his part to extinguish the memory of an "unconventional female king whose reign might possibly be interpreted by future generations as a grave offence against Ma'at , and whose unorthodox coregency" could "cast serious doubt upon the legitimacy of his own right to rule.

Hatshepsut's crime need not be anything more than the fact that she was a woman. She was, therefore, acceptable to conservative Egyptians as a patriotic 'Warrior Queen' who had failed" to rejuvenate Egypt's fortunes. The erasure of Hatshepsut's name—whatever the reason or the person ordering it—almost caused her to disappear from Egypt's archaeological and written records.

When nineteenth-century Egyptologists started to interpret the texts on the Deir el-Bahri temple walls which were illustrated with two seemingly male kings their translations made no sense. If I felt somewhat surprised at seeing here, as elsewhere throughout the temple, the renowned Moeris [Thutmose III], adorned with all the insignia of royalty, giving place to this Amenenthe [Hatshepsut], for whose name we may search the royal lists in vain, still more astonished was I to find upon reading the inscriptions that wherever they referred to this bearded king in the usual dress of the Pharaohs, nouns and verbs were in the feminine, as though a queen were in question. I found the same peculiarity everywhere The "Hatshepsut Problem" was a major issue in late 19th century and early 20th century Egyptology , centering on confusion and disagreement on the order of succession of early 18th Dynasty pharaohs.

Chronology-wise, the Hatshepsut problem was largely cleared up in the late 20th century, as more information about her and her reign was uncovered. The discovery of a foundation deposit including nine golden cartouches bearing the names of both Hatshepsut and Thutmose III in Karnak may shed additional light on the eventual attempt by Thutmose III and his son Amenhotep II to erase Hatshepsut from the historical record and the correct nature of their relationships and her role as pharaoh. Sphinx of Hatshepsut with unusual rounded ears and ruff that stress the lioness features of the statue, but with five toes — newel post decorations from the lower ramp of her tomb complex.

The statue incorporated the nemes headcloth and a royal beard; two defining characteristics of an Egyptian pharaoh. It was placed along with others in Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri. Date: — BC. Period: New Kingdom. Medium: Granite, paint. These two statues once resembled each other, however, the symbols of her pharaonic power: the Uraeus , Double Crown , and traditional false beard have been stripped from the left image; many images portraying Hatshepsut were destroyed or vandalized within decades of her death, possibly by Amenhotep II at the end of the reign of Thutmose III, while he was his co-regent, in order to assure his own rise to pharaoh and then, to claim many of her accomplishments as his.

The image of Hatshepsut has been deliberately chipped away and removed — Ancient Egyptian wing of the Royal Ontario Museum. Dual stela of Hatshepsut centre left in the blue Khepresh crown offering wine to the deity Amun and Thutmose III behind her in the hedjet white crown, standing near Wosret — Vatican Museum. Medium: Limestone. It depicts the god Atum, one of Egypt's creator gods, at the left, investing Hatshepsut with royal regalia. Medium: Painted limestone. Life-sized statue of Hatshepsut. She is shown wearing the nemes-headcloth and shendyt-kilt, which are both traditional for an Egyptian king.

The statue is more feminine, given the body structure. Traces of blue pigments showed that the statue was originally painted. Medium: Indurated limestone, paint. Location: Deir el-Bahri, Thebes, Egypt. A kneeling statue of Hatshepsut located at the central sanctuary in Deir el-Bahri dedicated to the god Amun-Re. The inscriptions on the statue showed that Hatshepsut is offering Amun-Re Maat, which translates to truth, order or justice.

This shows that Hatshepsut is indicating that her reign is based on Maat. Medium: Granite. Left — Knot Amulet. Middle — Meskhetyu Instrument. Right — Ovoid Stone. On the knot amulet, Hatshepsut's name throne name, Maatkare, and her expanded name with Amun are inscribed. The Meskhetyu Instrument was used during a funerary ritual, Opening of the Mouth, to revive the deceased.

On the Ovoid Stone, hieroglyphics was inscribed on it. The hieroglyphics translate to "The Good Goddess, Maatkare, she made [it] as her monument for her father, Amun-Re, at the stretching of the cord over Djeser-djeseru-Amun, which she did while alive. Neues Museum. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the 13th dynasty princess, see Hatshepsut king's daughter. Statue of Hatshepsut on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Royal titulary. Main article: Land of Punt. See also: Depiction of Hatshepsut's birth and coronation. See also: KV This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Retrieved 13 April New York Times. Retrieved 29 June A single tooth and some DNA clues appear to have solved the mystery of the lost mummy of Hatshepsut, one of the great queens of ancient Egypt, who reigned in the 15th century B. Retrieved 27 July Chronicle of the Pharaohs. ISBN The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. London: Bloomsbury. Woman Who Would be King. Oneworld Publications. OCLC African Political Thought. Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Hatshepsut: from Queen to Pharaoh. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Search For Nefertiti. Hachette UK. Being a leader, perhaps she respected the calls by one section of the kingdom to have a male Pharaoh.

Therefore, she started dressing like a male. She even announced that she was taking full control of the kingdom before dropping the tag of a queen to become a Pharaoh. She intelligently chose loyal people to support her ambitions for the kingdom. Even though the oracle decided that Hatshepsut was to become the heir of the throne as regent to Thutmosis III, the Egyptians were not convinced of her capabilities of leading them. Therefore, as a shrewd leader, Hatshepsut declared that she was the divine wife of the god Anum 4.

The year after Hatshepsut assumed full control of the kingdom was eventful. The temple was the first building to achieve unparalleled symmetry in construction 5. This temple later became a funerary complex where Hatshepsut would be worshipped posthumously. Previous Pharaohs were mainly remembered for their construction works, and thus Hatshepsut would not be left out. Throughout her rule, Hatshepsut faced legitimacy problems from the Egyptians. The majority of them were not satisfied with a female Pharaoh probably due to the chauvinistic inclinations at the time. Upon realizing this aspect, Hatshepsut adopted a recruitment strategy that would let in only the loyal followers into the leadership of the kingdom.

She also devised a promotional plan whereby individuals would be promoted based on their loyalty to her. This way, she ensured the stability of her reign. After 7 years of ruling, Hatshepsut sought to establish trading relationships with neighboring kingdoms, and thus she organized the famous trip to Punt. This historical trip involved 5 merchant ships with around 6. It suffices to conclude that Hatshepsut was a liberalist and she understood that Egypt stood to gain more from partnerships with the neighboring kingdoms as compared to engaging in endless and unfruitful wars.

Before Hatshepsut, the preceding Pharaohs were highly concerned about the security of the Egyptian Empire, and thus they dedicated huge resources in ensuring the security of the borders. However, Hatshepsut brought economic revolutions by pursuing foreign policies that would promote trade with other kingdoms. The successful trip to Punt convinced many Egyptians of the benefits of forming trading alliances with their neighbors. The trading bloc later expanded to Sinai and Byblos, which enriched the Empire enormously.

Hatshepsut was one of the most aggressive builders of ancient Egypt. After returning from Punt, she embarked on a series of infrastructural developments. The development agenda started with the hiring of a renowned architect at the time by the name Ineni 7. This professionalism led to the construction of grandeur buildings including temples. Other infrastructural developments included the establishment of trade routes. Hatshepsut was suffering from a chronic hereditary skin disease, which she had managed to live with for a long time.

However, as she grew older, the disease became unbearable, and thus she had to retire from the active running of the kingdom as a Pharaoh. During her reign, she mentored Thutmosis III by allowing him to participate actively in decision making concerning the leadership of the kingdom. Therefore, when Hatshepsut retired, Thutmosis III became the default successor and he took reign in However, the heir was only 7 years at the time, and thus Hatshepsut became his regent. Therefore, when Hatshepsut retired from active leadership roles, Thutmosis III took over the reign, and given the many years of learning under his stepmother, he had acquired the necessary skills to rule effectively.

He reigned for 54 years during which he made Egypt the largest empire that it has even been in history 8.

Wilson, John A. She reigned between and B. Hatshepsut Case Study 29 Hatshepsut Case Study New York: Hatshepsut Case Study Museum of Hatshepsut Case Study. The museum I Hatshepsut Case Study was the Kimbell Museum of Art and I chose this museum because I checked Hatshepsut Case Study their website The Pros And Cons Of Same Sex Parents their artworks they carried interest me. In what situation would it have been acceptable to Hatshepsut Case Study a woman as heir to the Hatshepsut Case Study

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